The digestive system is made up of two main parts, the Alimentary Cannal and the Accessory digestive cannal. The first part, the Alimentary Cannal, deals with ingestion, digestion and absorption of nutrients. They both work together to break down food and nutrients for other body systems to use through the use of 5 main functions.
- Ingestion- Takes in food through the mouth.
- Mechanical Digestion- Breaks down large pieces of food into smaller ones with teeth in the mouth.
- Chemical Digestion- Breaks down carbohydrates and other food molecules into smaller ones that the body can use. Digestive enzymes mix with food to assist in speeding up this process.
- Movements- Food is moved through the throat and swallowed down through the digestive tract by a series of rhythmic contractions. Here, food is mixed with other enzymes to help digest food in the stomache.
- Absorption- Simple molecules pass through the small intestine to be sent to other cells in the body through the blood stream.
- Elimination- Food molecules that cannot be used by the body are eliminated from the body through feces.
The digestive system is made up of 10 main structures that help to digest food. They are:
- Mouth- Mechanically breaks down food as it enters the body
- Esophagus- Delivers food to the stomache from the mouth
- Stomache- Holds food as it mixes it with digestive enzymes and a very strong digestive acid.
- Small Intestine- 22 foot long tube that breaks down food into a liquid formusing enzyms released from the pancreas and liver.
- Pancreas- Releases digestive enzymes into the small instestine as well as releases insulin into the bloodstream.
- Liver- Processes nutrients from the small intestine and releases bile into the small intestine.
- Gallbladder- Stores bile to help digest fat.
- Large Intestine- Processes waste and removes liquid.
- Rectum- Stores waste until it is ready to be removed from the system.
- Anus- Area that removes waste from the body.